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Table 1 Typical parameter values for mantle convection with variable viscosity

From: Mathematical modelling of mantle convection at a high Rayleigh number with variable viscosity and viscous dissipation

Parameter Symbol Value
Mantle depth d \(3\times 10^6\) m
Thermal expansion coefficient \(\alpha\) \(2\times 10^{-5}\) K\(^{-1}\)
Reference density \(\rho _0\) \(4\times 10^3\) kg m\(^{-3}\)
Gravitational acceleration g 10 m s\(^{-2}\)
Temperature at the top of the mantle \(T_{\mathrm{s}}\) 300 K
Temperature at the base of the mantle \(T_{\mathrm{b}}\) 3000 K
Temperature difference \(\Delta T\) 2700 K
Thermal conductivity k 4 W m\(^{-1}\)K\(^{-1}\)
Specific heat at constant pressure \(C_{\mathrm{p}}\) \(10^3\) J kg\(^{-1}\) K\(^{-1}\)
Activation energy E 300–525 kJ mol\(^{-1}\)
Activation volume V \(6\times 10^{-6}\) m\(^3\) mol\(^{-1}\)
Gas law constant R 8.31 J mol\(^{-1}\) K\(^{-1}\)
Viscous rate constant A \(10^5\) MPa\(^{-1}\) s\(^{-1}\)
Thermal diffusivity \(\kappa\) \(1\times 10^{-6}\) m\(^2\) s\(^{-1}\)
Rayleigh number Ra \(10^7-10^9\)
Viscous temperature parameter \(\varepsilon\) \(0.042-0.083\)
Viscous pressure number \(\mu\) \(1.2-2.4\)
Boussinesq number \({\bar{B}}\) 0.06
Dimensionless surface temperature \(\theta _0\) 0.1
Dissipation number D 0.6