 Original research
 Open Access
 Published:
Two efficient methods for solving fractional Lane–Emden equations with conformable fractional derivative
Journal of the Egyptian Mathematical Society volume 28, Article number: 42 (2020)
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce two reliable efficient approximate methods for solving a class of fractional Lane–Emden equations with conformable fractional derivative (CLM) which are the socalled conformable Homotopy–Adomian decomposition method (CHA) and conformable residual power series method (CRP). Furthermore, the proposed methods express the solutions of the nonlinear cases of the CLM in terms of fractional convergent series in which its components can be computed in an easy manner. Finally, the results are given by graphs for each case of the CLM at different values of α in order to demonstrate its accuracy, applicability, and efficiency.
Introduction
The subject of fractional calculus can be considered as a generalization of the classical integer order calculus (derivative and integration), and due its important role in science and engineering, it has been gaining considerable attention of many authors and researchers [1–5]. The reader who is interested with the field of fractional calculus knows that there are many definitions of a fractional order derivative and they have been used to describe several reallife problems in many fields of sciences; the most important and famous ones are Riemann–Liouville, Grunwald–Letnikov, and Caputo derivatives [1, 2, 6–10]. Riemann–Liouville and Caputo use the integral in its construction, particularly the Cauchy integral formula with modifications. Hence, occasionally, we need complex computations to get the fractional derivative in the sense of Riemann–Liouville and Caputo. Furthermore, they do not satisfy the nonlinear derivative rules as product, quotient, and chain rules. More recently, a new definition of fractional derivatives which is the socalled conformable fractional derivative has been introduced and attracted the attention of many researchers because it contains many characteristics that correspond to the usual derivative, particularly the Leibniz rules [11–16]. This definition is very simple and more welcome than other fractional definitions since it has been receiving a lot of attention, many applications and phenomena can be modeled based on the CFDs, and it contains many interesting advantages such as the following: it is a local derivative that simulates the normal derivative because it depends on the limit in its formulation and it generalizes all concepts of ordinary calculus and can solve different fractional differential equations with all cases. In addition to this definition, there is another type of local derivatives called nonconformable fractional derivative, and for this purpose, the authors point out the publications [17–22]. In recent years, many authors have handled and studied the Lane–Emden equations because they were used to formulate lots of phenomena in physics and astrophysics [23–28].
The aim of this paper is to find the approximate solution of fractional Lane–Emden equations with conformable fractional derivative (CLM) using the conformable Homotopy–Adomian decomposition method (CHA) and conformable residual power series method (CRP); both of these methods are effective and easy to use for solving nonlinear CLM, without linearization or discretization. The benefit of these techniques over the other methods is that they can be performed directly to the given problem by choosing an appropriate value for the initial guess approximations, and they also reduce the difficulty appearing in the computation of the complicated terms [29–36].
This paper is organized as follows: In the “Preliminaries” section, a preliminary introduction of the conformable fractional order derivative is presented. In “The CHA for solving CLM” section, we introduced the CHA for solving CLM. The basic idea of the CRP technique for solving CLM was given in the “A CRP for solving CLM” section. Finally, a conclusion has been drawn.
Preliminaries
In this section, a brief introduction to the definition and properties of the conformable fractional derivative will be given [11, 12, 37–40].
Definition 1
Given a function \(y:[0,+\infty)\to \mathbb {R}\), then the CFD of order α of y is given by:
for all x>0,α∈(0,1). If y is αdifferentiable in some (0,a),a>0 and \(\underset {x\to 0}{\mathop {\lim }}\,{{y}^{(\alpha)}}(x)\) exist, then define \({{y}^{(\alpha)}}(0)=\underset {x\to 0}{\mathop {\lim }}\,{{y}^{(\alpha)}}(x)\).
Definition 2
The conformable integral of order α is defined by:
where the integral is the usual Riemann improper integral and α∈(0,1).
Lemma 1
Let α∈(0,1] and f, g be αdifferentiable at a point t>0, then:
The CHA for solving CLM
In this section, we present the CHA for solving CLM; the CHA is a hybrid method in which it combines between the HAM and the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The calculations involved in this technique are more easy than the standard HAM especially when the nonlinear term in the CLM is decomposed by using the Adomian polynomials. To start the procedure, let us consider the general form of CLM of order α>0:
where x>0 and 0<α≤1.
To solve this problem using CHA, first, rewrite Eq. (3), as follows:
Then, integrate Eq. (4) twice with respect to x, so the general fractional solution of Eq. (3) is given by:
where c_{1} and c_{2} are constants and d_{α}x=x^{1−α}dx.
In order to solve Eq. (5) by means of HAM, we need to seek the auxiliary linear operator:
We now define the nonlinear operator as:
Consequently, the mthorder (m≥1) deformation equations can be expressed using the Adomian polynomials as:
where
Hence
Starting with an initial approximation:
So, we have:
where
and \(\left \{ {{A}_{m}} \right \}_{m=0}^{+\infty }\) is the set of Adomian polynomials of f(y) which is defined as follows:
Finally, the exact solution of Eq. (3) can be calculated by:
and the nthorder approximate solution of Eq. (3) is given by:
Now, we examine some known and charming cases that have been resulting from Eq. (3) as follows:
Case 1
Set f(y)=y^{k}, k=0,1,2,.... in Eq.(3), then the following equation for x>0 is called:
The CLM of the first kind.
To solve this problem, we apply Eq. (13) to compute the set of Adomian polynomials \(\left \{ {{A}_{k}} \right \}_{k=0}^{+\infty }\) of the nonlinear function f(y)=y^{k}.
Hence, according to Eq. (14), the general fractional solution of Eq. (16) is given as follows:
where y_{0} is given by Eq. (11) and y_{m}, m=1,2,3,..., is given by Eq. (12).
Problem 1
Set the initial conditions y(0)=1 and y^{′}(0)=0 into Eq. (16), then the general fractional solution of Eq. (16) in terms of Adomian polynomials is given by Eqs. (11), (12), and (14), respectively.
Problem 2
Set k=0 into Eq. (16), then we have:
According to the initial conditions given in problem 1 and by integrating twice, then, the exact solution of this equation (see Fig. 1) can be obtained by :
Problem 3
Set k=1 into Eq. (16) and by using the initial conditions y(0)=1 and y^{′}(0)=0, then we have:
According to Eqs.(11) and (12), with A_{0}=y_{0}, A_{1}=y_{1}, A_{2}=y_{2}, etc., then the solution of Eq. (19) is (see Fig. 2):
Problem 4
Set k=2 into Eq. (16) and by using the initial conditions y(0)=1 and y^{′}(0)=0, then we have:
Also by using Eqs.(11) and (12), with \({{A}_{0}}=y_{0}^{2},\,\,{{A}_{1}}=2{{y}_{0}}{{y}_{1}},\,\,{{A}_{2}}=2{{y}_{0}}{{y}_{2}}+y_{1}^{2},\,etc.\), then the solution of Eq. (21) is (see Fig. 3):
Case 2
Consider f(y)=e^{y} as in Eq. (3), then the following equation for x>0 is called:
The CLM of the second kind.
To solve problem (23) using CHA and according to Eqs.(11) and (12), with \({{A}_{0}}=1,\,\,{{A}_{1}}={{y}_{1}},\,\,{{A}_{2}}={{y}_{2}}+\frac {1}{2}y_{1}^{2},\,\,{{A}_{3}}={{y}_{3}}+{{y}_{1}}{{y}_{2}}+\frac {1}{3!}y_{1}^{3},\,...,\) the solutions will be drawn as:
Therefore, the general fractional power series solution is (see Fig. 4) given by:
A CRP for solving CLM
The implementation of the CRP will be described in this segment in order to get the fractional power series solution of the CLM represented by Eq. (3) subject to the initial conditions:
The solution of Eq. (3) with respect to Eq. (24) is proposed by CRP as a fractional power series expansion about the initial point x=x_{0} as follows:
where y_{m} is expressed by \({{y}_{m}}={{c}_{m}}\frac {{{(x{{x}_{0}})}^{m\alpha }}}{{{\alpha }^{m}}m!},\,\,m=0,1,2,...\,\,.\)
Clearly, for the case m=0,1, we have from the initial conditions given by Eq. (26) that c_{0}=a and c_{1}=b.
By truncating the summation into Eq. (27), we get the kth approximate series:
For the convergence of the fractional power series Eq. (28), we advise to see [41].
For simplification and before employing the CRP, Eq. (3) can be written in the form:
Now, to evaluate c_{m} that appears in the series expansion given by Eq. (28), substituting y^{k}(x) into Eq. (29), we obtain the following kth residual function:
Then, \({{\operatorname {Res}}^{\infty }}(x)=\underset {k\to \infty }{\mathop {\lim }}\,{{\operatorname {Res}}^{k}}(x)\) clearly Res^{∞}(x)=0 for each x∈[x_{0}, x_{0}+a].
Furthermore, CD^{(k−1)α}Res^{k}(x_{0})=0, k=1,2,3,...,k which is coming from lemma 1 (property 3) and this is a basic rule to compute the coefficients c_{m}, m=2,3,...,k.
However, finding c_{m} demands to solve the algebraic expression:
In this manner, all the desired coefficients c_{m} will be found.
For solving Eq. (3) using CRP, different cases for Eq. (3) will be discussed as follows:

Consider Eq. (17), subject to the initial conditions y(0)=1 and y^{′}(0)=0, according to the initial conditions given above, and by using Eq. (30), hence, we have \({{c}_{0}}=1,\,{{c}_{1}}=0,\,{{c}_{2}}=\frac {1}{3},\,{{c}_{m}}=0\,for\,all\,m\ge 3,\) substituting these values into Eq. (28) then the general fractional series solution in this case can be obtained by:
$$\ {{y}^{\infty }}(x)=1\frac{{{x}^{2\alpha }}}{6{{\alpha }^{2}}} $$ 
In this case, the problem under consideration combines Eq. (21) together with the initial conditions y(0)=1 and y^{′}(0)=0 also according to the given initial conditions and Eq.(30); then, we have \({{c}_{0}}=1,\,{{c}_{1}}=0,\,{{c}_{2}}=\frac {1}{3},\,{{c}_{3}}=0,\,{{c}_{4}}= \frac {2}{5},\,{{c}_{5}}=0,\,...\); then, the fractional power series solution is:
$$\ {{y}^{6}}(x)=1\frac{{{x}^{2\alpha }}}{6{{\alpha }^{2}}}+\frac{{{x}^{4\alpha }}}{60{{\alpha }^{4}}}\frac{11{{x}^{6\alpha }}}{7560{{\alpha }^{6}}} $$Also, the nature of the CRP solution of Eq. (21) is presented in Fig. 3.

Consider the problem given by Eq. (23) with respect to the initial conditions y(0)=0 and y^{′}(0)=0, then after taking the initial conditions in consideration and by employing Eq. (30), we get \({{c}_{0}}={{c}_{1}}=0,\,{{c}_{2}}=\frac {1}{3},\,{{c}_{3}}=0,\,{{c}_{4}}=\frac {1}{5}, \,{{c}_{5}}=0,\,...\); thus, the fractional power series solution in this case is:
$$\ {{y}^{6}}(x)=\frac{{{x}^{2\alpha }}}{6{{\alpha }^{2}}}+\frac{{{x}^{4\alpha }}}{120{{\alpha }^{4}}}\frac{{{x}^{6\alpha }}}{1890{{\alpha }^{6}}} $$The quality of the CRP solution of Eq. (23) is given in Fig. 4.
Conclusions
In this paper, we applied CHA and CRP to find the approximate analytic solution of some classes of CLM in terms of infinite fractional power series. The proposed methods introduced an easy way to compute the components of the solution that have been converging rapidly to the exact solution. The results obtained by CHA and CRP prove that these algorithms are highly effective and convenient in nonlinear cases of the CLM and can be employed to examine a wide class of nonlinear fractional mathematical models.
Availability of data and materials
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this paper.
References
 1
Podlubny, I.: Fractional Differential Equations : an Introduction to Fractional Derivatives, Fractional Differential Equations, to Methods of Their Solution and Some of Their Applications. Academic Press, San Diego (1999).
 2
Kilbas, A. A.: Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations. Elsevier, Amsterdam Boston (2006).
 3
Mohammed, O. H.: A direct method for solving fractional order variational problems by hat basis functions. Ain Shams Eng. J. 9(4), 1513–1518 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2016.11.006.
 4
Mohammed, O. H., Malik, A. M.: A modified computational algorithm for solving systems of linear integrodifferential equations of fractional order. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 31(4), 946–955 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2018.09.005.
 5
Abdo, M. S., Shah, K., Wahash, H. A., Panchal, S. K.: On a comprehensive model of the novel coronavirus (COVID19) under mittagleffler derivative. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 135, 109867 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2020.109867.
 6
Ali, S., Bushnaq, S., Shah, K., Arif, M.: Numerical treatment of fractional order cauchy reaction diffusion equations. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 103, 578–587 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2017.07.016.
 7
Ali, S., Shah, K., Jarad, F.: On stable iterative solutions for a class of boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional order differential equations. Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 42(3), 969–981 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/mma.5407.
 8
Khan, H., Khan, A., Chen, W., Shah, K.: Stability analysis and a numerical scheme for fractional kleingordon equations. Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 42(2), 723–732 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/mma.5375.
 9
Kamal, S.: Using a numerical method by omitting discretization of data to study numerical solutions for boundary value problems of fractional order differential equations. Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 42(18), 6944–6959 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1002/mma.5800.
 10
Shah, K., Alqudah, M. A., Jarad, F., Abdeljawad, T.: Semianalytical study of pine wilt disease model with convex rate under caputo–febrizio fractional order derivative. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 135, 109754 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2020.109754.
 11
Khalil, R., Al Horani, M., Yousef, A., Sababheh, M.: A new definition of fractional derivative. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 264, 65–70 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2014.01.002.
 12
Abdeljawad, T.: On conformable fractional calculus. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 279, 57–66 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2014.10.016.
 13
Dedovic, N., Birgani, O. T., Chandok, S., Radenovic, S.: A note on some recent results of the conformable fractional derivative. Adv. Theory Nonlinear Anal. Appl., 11–17 (2018). https://doi.org/10.31197/atnaa.482525.
 14
Todorčević, V.: Subharmonic behavior and quasiconformal mappings. Anal. Math. Phys. 9(3), 1211–1225 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13324019003088.
 15
Manojlovic, V.: On conformally invariant extremal problems. Appl. Anal. Discret. Math. 3(1), 97–119 (2009). https://doi.org/10.2298/aadm0901097m.
 16
Shanmugam, T., Muthiah, M., Radenović, S.: Existence of positive solution for the eighthorder boundary value problem using classical version of leray–schauder alternative fixed point theorem. Axioms. 8(4), 129 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms8040129.
 17
Fleitas, A., MendezBermudez, J. A., Valdés, J. E. N., Almira, J. M. S.: On fractional liénard–type systems. Rev. Mex. Fís. 65(6 NovDec), 618 (2019). https://doi.org/10.31349/revmexfis.65.618.
 18
Fleitas, A., GómezAguilar, J. F., Valdés, J. E. N, Rodríguez, J. M., M., S. J.: Analysis of the local drude model involving the generalized fractional derivative. Optik. 193, 163008 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2019.163008.
 19
Guzmán, P. M., Nápoles Valdés, J. E.: A note on the oscillatory character of some non conformable generalized lienard system. Advanced Mathematical Models and Applications (2019).
 20
Guzmán, P. M., Lugo MottaBittencart, L. M., Nápoles Váldes, J. E.: A new definition of a fractional derivative of local type. J. Math. Anal. (2018).
 21
Martinéz, F., Mohammed, P. O., Nápoles Váldes, J. E.: Nonconformable fractional laplace transform. Kragujevac J. Math. (2019).
 22
Nápoles Váldes, J. E., Guzmán, P. M.: Some new results on nonconformable fractional calculus. Adv. Dyn. Syst. Appl. (2018).
 23
Wang, X., Zhang, J.: Nonexistence of positive solutions to nonlocal laneemden equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 488(1), 124067 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmaa.2020.124067.
 24
Dizicheh, A. K., Salahshour, S., Ahmadian, A., Baleanu, D.: A novel algorithm based on the legendre wavelets spectral technique for solving the lane–emden equations. Appl. Numer. Math. 153, 443–456 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnum.2020.02.016.
 25
HadianRasanan, A. H., Rahmati, D., Gorgin, S., Parand, K.: A single layer fractional orthogonal neural network for solving various types of lane–emden equation. New Astron. 75, 101307 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2019.101307.
 26
Singh, R., Garg, H., Guleria, V.: Haar wavelet collocation method for lane–emden equations with dirichlet, neumann and neumann–robin boundary conditions. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 346, 150–161 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2018.07.004.
 27
AlZhour, Z., AlMutairi, N., Alrawajeh, F., Alkhasawneh, R.: Series solutions for the laguerre and laneemden fractional differential equations in the sense of conformable fractional derivative. Alex. Eng. J. 58(4), 1413–1420 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2019.11.012.
 28
Soliman, M. A.: Approximate solution for the laneemden equation of the second kind in a spherical annulus. J. King Saud Univ. Eng. Sci. 31(1), 1–5 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksues.2017.02.002.
 29
Hussain, S., Shah, A., Ayub, S., Ullah, A.: An approximate analytical solution of the allencahn equation using homotopy perturbation method and homotopy analysis method. Heliyon. 5(12), 03060 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e03060.
 30
Naik, P. A., Zu, J., Ghoreishi, M.: Estimating the approximate analytical solution of HIV viral dynamic model by using homotopy analysis method. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 131, 109500 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2019.109500.
 31
YépezMartínez, H., GómezAguilar, J. F.: A new modified definition of caputo–fabrizio fractionalorder derivative and their applications to the multi step homotopy analysis method (MHAM). J. Comput. Appl. Math. 346, 247–260 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2018.07.023.
 32
Odibat, Z.: On the optimal selection of the linear operator and the initial approximation in the application of the homotopy analysis method to nonlinear fractional differential equations. Appl. Numer. Math. 137, 203–212 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnum.2018.11.003.
 33
Dubey, V. P., Kumar, R., Kumar, D.: A reliable treatment of residual power series method for timefractional black–scholes European option pricing equations. Phys. A Stat. Mech. Appl. 533, 122040 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physa.2019.122040.
 34
Bayrak, M. A., Demir, A.: A new approach for spacetime fractional partial differential equations by residual power series method. Appl. Math. Comput. 336, 215–230 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2018.04.032.
 35
AzZo’bi, E. A., Yıldırım, A., AlZoubi, W. A.: The residual power series method for the onedimensional unsteady flow of a van der waals gas. Phys. A Stat. Mech. Appl. 517, 188–196 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physa.2018.11.030.
 36
Şenol, M., Alquran, M., Kasmaei, H. D.: On the comparison of perturbationiteration algorithm and residual power series method to solve fractional zakharovkuznetsov equation. Results Phys. 9, 321–327 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2018.02.056.
 37
Abu Hammad, M., Khalil, R.: Conformable fractional heat differential equation. Int. J. Pure Appl. Math. 94(2) (2014). https://doi.org/10.12732/ijpam.v94i2.8.
 38
ElAjou, A., AlZhour, Z., Oqielat, M., Momani, S., Hayat, T.: Series solutions of nonlinear conformable fractional KdVburgers equation with some applications. Eur. Phys. J. Plus. 134(8) (2019). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i201912731x.
 39
Oqielat, M. N., ElAjou, A., AlZhour, Z., Alkhasawneh, R., Alrabaiah, H.: Series solutions for nonlinear timefractional schr?dinger equations: Comparisons between conformable and caputo derivatives. Alex. Eng. J. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2020.01.023.
 40
Abdeljawad, T., AlMdallal, Q. M., Jarad, F.: Fractional logistic models in the frame of fractional operators generated by conformable derivatives. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 119, 94–101 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2018.12.015.
 41
ElAjou, A., Arqub, O., Zhour, Z., Momani, S.: New results on fractional power series: theories and applications. Entropy. 15(12), 5305–5323 (2013). https://doi.org/10.3390/e15125305.
Acknowledgements
The authors are very grateful to the reviewers for their careful reading of the paper and for their comments and suggestions which have improve the paper.
Funding
Not applicable.
Author information
Affiliations
Contributions
The corresponding author analyzed and wrote the paper. The coauthor raised the first idea and edited and analyzed the paper again in the wellorganized form. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Additional information
Publisher’s Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Malik, A.M., Mohammed, O.H. Two efficient methods for solving fractional Lane–Emden equations with conformable fractional derivative. J Egypt Math Soc 28, 42 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s4278702000099z
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
Keywords
 Fractional Lane–Emden equations
 HAM
 Residual power series
Subject Classification
 Computational mathematics
 Approximate methods
 Numerical analysis